John Duns Scotus

On the Elements

John Duns Scotus says: Therefore I say to the question, in maintaining that which is opposite of either, that the elements do not remain in a mixture according to their substance, whether diminished (as the Commentator says) or not diminished, as Avicenna posits, whose reasoning is that plurality must not be posited without necessity: but nothing compels us to posit a plurality of the elements, or that a plurality of substantial forms remains in the mixture; because it is not an operation, which greatly conceals form, for it is not an operation of mixture, it is one of the same species of element with another operation; nor is it a transformation, for the form of the element and the form of the mixture have sufficient character, that one is the end of one creation, and the other of another: or just as the latter might be the end of corruption by someone and the former the end of lending many to someone.

Original Latin