John Duns Scotus

On Logic

Excerpted from Quaest. in librum Porphyrii

Again, logic is either a real science or a discursive one; that it is not real is clear, therefore it is discursive. Therefore some part of it concerns the signifying utterance; and then that part, which is the first one, will be a simple concept about the significant utterance, just as the book Peri hermenias is a composite concept about the significant utterance.

In response to the question it can be said that that book is not about the ten utterances as about its primary subject, and that no part of logic is about an utterance, since all effects of a syllogism and all its parts can exist in it, according to the existence that they have in the mind even if they are not uttered, as is inductively clear. Rather it is about something prior, which in respect of the signifying utterance has only an account of what is signified.

original latin

Ad aliud dico quod logica nec est scientia realis nec sermocinalis, quia nec sermonem nec passiones sermonis considerat, nec suum subiectum sub ratione sermonis.

Immo quod ista divisio sit insufficiens sic ostenditur: medium inter rem et sermonem vel vocem est passio; ergo sicut est aliqua scientia per se de rebus, aliqua per se de vocibus significativis, ut grammatica, rhetorica, quae considerant passiones vocis in quantum vocis, scilicet congruum et ornatum, ita potest aliqua scientia esse de conceptu per se; haec est logica.

Unde per se debet dici scientia rationalis, non tantum quia traditur per rationem sicut quaelibet alia scientia, sed cum hoc est de conceptibus formatis ab actu rationis.

Si ab aliquo dicatur logicam esse scientiam sermocinalem, ut videtur ex interpretatione nominis: Intelligendum est quod multum convenit cum sermone propter duo: quia conceptus est immediatum significatum per vocem, de quo conceptu est logica; et quia passiones conceptus insunt voci significativae sicut incomplexio, complexio, significare verum vel falsum , ut signo per naturam significati.