William of Ockham

On Sin and Virtue

Latin Etymology

Quantum ad negativam exponentem dico quod est simpliciter vera, quia omnis alius actus ab actu voluntatis, qui est in potestate voluntatis, sic est bonus quod potest esse malus, quia potest fieri cum malo fine et mala intentione. Similiter omnis alius actus potest elici naturaliter et non libere, et nullus talis est necessario virtuosus. Praeterea omnis actus alius a voluntate potest fieri a solo Deo, et per consequens non est necessario virtuosus creaturae rationali.
Praeterea quilibet alius actus idem manens potest indifferenter esse laudabilis et vituperabilis, et primo laudabilis et post vituperabilis, secundum quod potest successive conformari volitioni rectae et vitiosae; patet de ire ad ecclesiam, primo bona intentione, et postea mala intentione.

Use the following words, derived from the bolded words above, to fill in the blanks in the English sentences below. Do not choose the blatant derivatives from this passage such as negative, simple, act, voluntary, intention, similar, natural, necessary, virtuous, successive, conform and volition.


1.  He failed to understand that any action he took had a  for which he had to atone.

2.  Don't try to  a reaction from me through such horrible means.

3.  The dog was so  that they feared he would not be trainable by even the best in the field.

4.  The crime rate was increasing at such an  rate that his parents decided to move to a new city.

5.  She decided that to  the unknowledgable sales associate was not the right solution to her problem.

6.  Her actions were so  that they decided to award her a new prize.

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