1. Est igitur crystallinus humor, albus, lucidus, clarus, in superficie planus, in medio omnium aliorum collocatis et hocideo, ut ei ab aliis omnibus aequaliter serviatur.
2. Fuit etiam pernius, clarus, et dyaphanus, ut citius in oppositos colores transferretur et ad ominium colorum indifferenter similitudinem immutaretur.
3. Oculi quasi occulti sunt dicti: quia eos ciliorum regmina occultant, ne qua indidentis iniuriae ossensione laedantur.
4. Fuit etiam rotundus in forma et in substantia, ut non facile laederetur, nec in eius angulis superfluum aliquid colligeretur, unde casualiter pateretur. Sed ne nimia rotunditate nimis esset mobilis, habuit aliquam planiciem, ut ad moderantiam eius velocitas duceretur, ceret.
One common use of the subjunctive is in “purpose clauses,” also sometimes called “final clauses,” which express the idea that someone did something in order for something else to happen. In English, the purpose expressed will often be in the infinitive: “we put on our hats in order to be warm.” In Latin, the purpose expressed will be in the subjunctive after ut. This is more like another way of expressing purpose clauses in English, namely, “we put on our hats so that we would be warm.” Consider example 1 and 2above.
Purpose clauses follow the rules for sequence of tenses:
- Example 1 is primary sequence (present-tense verb in the indicative, present subjunctive)
- Example 2 is in secondary sequence (perfect verb in the indicative, imperfect subjunctive).
Purpose clauses can also express the idea that something is being done in order that something else not happen; in English, this might sound something like “we put on our hats in order not to be cold,” or “we put on our hats so that we would not be cold.” In Latin, the most common way to express this idea is with ne instead of ut (example 3).
However, you will also sometimes see this idea expressed using ut non (example 4).
The idea being expressed is exactly the same, but the non in ut non may sometimes be used to focus the negative on a nearby word. In the example above, Bartholomew may be emphasizing that the eye cannot be hurt easily (though it may still be hurt). But as you can see, Bartholomew is comfortable using all three of these options, and you will be too after the following exercise.
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