Thomas Aquinas

On God's Knowledge

Latin Grammar: Ablative of Agent

Unde omnia quae sunt in tempore, sunt Deo ab aeterno praesentia, non solum ea ratione qua habet rationes rerum apud se praesentes, ut quidam dicunt, sed quia eius intuitus fertur ab aeterno super omnia, prout sunt in sua praesentialitate. Unde manifestum est quod contingentia et infallibiliter a Deo cognoscuntur, inquantum subduntur divino conspectui secundum suam praesentialitatem, et tamen sunt futura contingentia, suis causis comparata.

The passive voice turns the object of an active verb into the subject. In order to express the original subject, the agent by which an action occurs, Latin uses the ablative of agent. The ablative of agent is indicated by a(b) and used only for personal agency. Be sure to distinguish the ablative of agent from the ablative of means, which does not take a preposition. Translate the following English sentences into Latin using the ablative of agent.

1. Everything is heard by my mother.

2. Books are read by students.

3. This was said by him.

4. He was seen by God.

5. We were called by them.

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